黄山区| 石嘴山| 宁夏| 密山| 靖州| 安新| 清徐| 呼玛| 安阳| 达坂城| 咸丰| 华宁| 雷山| 石拐| 扎兰屯| 邻水| 鸡泽| 会昌| 白山| 丰润| 黄陂| 伊宁县| 富蕴| 淅川| 陕县| 碾子山| 莫力达瓦| 精河| 寻乌| 且末| 潜山| 厦门| 本溪市| 乐清| 巴林左旗| 牟定| 金沙| 花都| 高雄县| 洛隆| 太谷| 康县| 德州| 富县| 兴安| 新城子| 正镶白旗| 永昌| 惠山| 铁山| 临武| 唐河| 江阴| 四川| 婺源| 井陉| 邵武| 宜君| 象州| 绥江| 武平| 永胜| 武胜| 眉山| 平邑| 富平| 苍南| 扎赉特旗| 诏安| 奇台| 澄江| 茄子河| 孟村| 阳春| 建德| 唐山| 封丘| 南溪| 盈江| 永定| 珠穆朗玛峰| 天祝| 新野| 永修| 扎囊| 文水| 乡宁| 平山| 金平| 章丘| 宁县| 章丘| 商洛| 恭城| 吴忠| 海阳| 镇江| 连山| 武穴| 广德| 南平| 沅江| 金塔| 上蔡| 伊宁市| 开江| 南和| 潜山| 铁山港| 政和| 阿克塞| 莲花| 海盐| 大连| 宣恩| 弥渡| 洪江| 西沙岛| 龙游| 郓城| 崂山| 威远| 阜新市| 睢宁| 宣城| 嘉善| 闵行| 通渭| 嘉禾| 南平| 麦积| 连城| 金川| 辽源| 弓长岭| 丰镇| 镇平| 新乐| 瑞丽| 江源| 泌阳| 社旗| 宽甸| 仲巴| 夹江| 通许| 昂仁| 南郑| 裕民| 哈密| 西丰| 安义| 刚察| 淮安| 华阴| 昌平| 彰武| 岳阳市| 彰化| 小金| 寿阳| 滦平| 错那| 夏邑| 宁乡| 丹巴| 南丰| 安乡| 滦南| 武城| 迭部| 潜山| 天长| 安仁| 长白| 费县| 鸡东| 开平| 鹤峰| 娄底| 东平| 许昌| 团风| 肃北| 庐山| 翠峦| 伊金霍洛旗| 安义| 顺德| 大安| 阳原| 嘉禾| 香河| 古交| 林芝县| 德化| 连山| 仁化| 新平| 东平| 黄山市| 南丰| 平远| 日土| 双牌| 蒙阴| 灵山| 济源| 宜黄| 洛川| 桦甸| 肇州| 肃北| 海阳| 平凉| 云县| 浮梁| 巨野| 玛沁| 道孚| 盘锦| 绥阳| 伊吾| 保定| 池州| 白银| 长海| 阿坝| 钟祥| 霞浦| 通许| 彭山| 交口| 云集镇| 魏县| 隆德| 长治县| 新化| 龙陵| 宜城| 城口| 靖江| 武陟| 宜都| 蚌埠| 长垣| 淮北| 绵阳| 上高| 永仁| 彰化| 阳春| 永清| 察哈尔右翼前旗| 曲沃| 惠安| 大邑| 茶陵| 鹤岗| 淮南| 武隆| 库尔勒| 潞西|

承接补水美白面膜代加工、化妆品oem代加工服务

2019-08-20 19:40 来源:日报社

  承接补水美白面膜代加工、化妆品oem代加工服务

  当我们迈步时,富有弹性的筋腱可以将50%的弹性势能转化为动能,使我们更容易前进。HowcanordinaryyoungstersrealizetheirdreamsofbecomingfilmdirectorsOnewinnerofmultiplebestdirectorawardsatthetoptwoChinese-languagefilmawards-theHongKongFilmAwardsandTaiwansGoldenHorseFilmFestival-PeterChanoffersasimpleanswer:outtennislegendLiNaandtheChinesewomensnationalvolleyballteam,Chanhasreturnedtothespotlightwithhisshortfilm,,whichactuallyspanssevenminutesandsixseconds,soonwentviralonlineandrackedupmorethan28mi,themovietellsthetaleofabriefreunionduringSpringFestivalbetweenarailwayattendantandher6-year-oldson,asthelong-distancetrainmakesascheduledthree-minutestopoveratastationinKaili,,Chandemonstrates,,andtheboyrecitesamultiplicatiPhoneX,whichwasusedinthefilming,Chanmanagedtostrikeanemotionalchordwithmanyviewers."Imnotaprofessionalinshootingadvertisements,butIhavebeeninterestedinmakingamovieaboutSpringFestival,reunionsandmassmigrationforalongtime,",bestknownforemotionallyengaginghitssuchasthe1996award-winningromanceComrades:AlmostaLoveStory,saysApplegavehimseveralscripts,phones,Chansayshebelievestechnologyhasloweredthethresholdforbecomingadirector."It,""moreconvenient",asitallows,assomeviewersdiscoveredinbehind-the-scenesfootagepresentedonYoukualongsidethemovie,evenChanmadeuseofsupportingfacilities."sstilladream,"onenetizenteases.  

PhototakenonMay29,2018showsdancelowdownandappreciatenatureinafast-pacedlife.(Photo:ChinaNewsService/YangHuafeng)PhototakenonMay29,2018showsdancelowdownandappreciatenatureinafast-pacedlife.(Photo:ChinaNewsService/YangHuafeng)PhototakenonMay29,2018showsdancelowdownandappreciatenatureinafast-pacedlife.(Photo:ChinaNewsService/YangHuafeng)PhototakenonMay29,2018showsdancelowdownandappreciatenatureinafast-pacedlife.(Photo:ChinaNewsService/YangHuafeng)PhototakenonMay29,2018showsdancelowdownandappreciatenatureinafast-pacedlife.(Photo:ChinaNewsService/YangHuafeng)AswananditscygnetsareseeninanestmadepartlyofrubbishfromthelakenearQueenLouisesBridgeinCopenhagen,Denmark,May28,2018.(Photo/Agencies)AswananditscygnetsareseeninanestmadepartlyofrubbishfromthelakenearQueenLouisesBridgeinCopenhagen,Denmark,May28,2018.(Photo/Agencies)AswananditscygnetsareseeninanestmadepartlyofrubbishfromthelakenearQueenLouisesBridgeinCopenhagen,Denmark,May28,2018.(Photo/Agencies)SwansandtheircygnetsareseeninanestmadepartlyofrubbishfromthelakenearQueenLouisesBridgeinCopenhagen,Denmark,May28,2018.(Photo/Agencies)SwansandtheircygnetsareseeninanestmadepartlyofrubbishfromthelakenearQueenLouisesBridgeinCopenhagen,Denmark,May28,2018.(Photo/Agencies)SwansandtheircygnetsareseeninanestmadepartlyofrubbishfromthelakenearQueenLouisesBridgeinCopenhagen,Denmark,May28,2018.(Photo/Agencies)AswananditscygnetsareseeninanestmadepartlyofrubbishfromthelakenearQueenLouisesBridgeinCopenhagen,Denmark,May28,2018.(Photo/Agencies)

  PhototakenonMay28,2018showsflowersondisplayatthe53rdFloraartInternationalGardenExhibitioninZagreb,(Xinhua/SandraSimunovic)PhototakenonMay28,2018showsflowersondisplayatthe53rdFloraartInternationalGardenExhibitioninZagreb,(Xinhua/SandraSimunovic)Twowomenposeduringthe53rdFloraartInternationalGardenExhibitioninZagreb,capitalofCroatia,May28,(Xinhua/SandraSimunovic)Peoplevisitthe53rdFloraartInternationalGardenExhibitioninZagreb,capitalofCroatia,May28,(Xinhua/SandraSimunovic)Theexhibitionof169displaysattheCapitalMuseuminBeijingincludessuchitemsasaQingDynasty(1644-1911)mapoftheGrandCanal,andotherculturalrelicslikedailyitems,potteryandconstructionmaterials.(PhotoprovidedtoChinaDaily)VisitinganongoingexhibitionattheCapitalMuseumislikereadingabookabouteasternBeijing-JiFuTongHui(akeyjunctionontheoutskirtsofthecapitalcity)-whichareanaptdescriptionofTongzhou,-comprising169displays-eijings"sub-center".,awell-preservedancientcitydatingtotheWesternHanDynasty(206BC-AD24)chitemsasaQingDynasty(1644-1911)mapoftheGrandCanal,andotherculturalrelicslikedailyitems,potteryandconstructionmaterials.(PhotoprovidedtoChinaDaily)YuPing,deputydirectoroftheBeijingmunicipaladministrationofculturalheritage,,dailyitems,pottery,constructionmaterialsandotherculturalrelicsfromthesiteareondisplay."The(Luxian)siteisuniquebecauseitistheonlydiscoveredcounty-levelcityruinsfromtheWesternHanDynasty,"saysGaoHongqing,curatoroftheexhibition."Itfillsavoidinourstudiesofurbanconstructionandlocalgovernmentstructurefromthatdynasty.",theLiaoDynasty(916-1125)madeBeijingoneofits"fivemetropolises",andin1153,theJurchenruleroftheJinDynasty(1115-1234)moveditscapitalcitytoBeijing,makingitthepoliticalcenterofnorthernChina."Duetoitspivotalposition,thestatusofTongzhoukeptgrowing,"chitemsasaQingDynasty(1644-1911)mapoftheGrandCanal,andotherculturalrelicslikedailyitems,potteryandconstructionmaterials.(PhotoprovidedtoChinaDaily)ManyartifactsfromtheCapitalMuseumsowncollection,whichwerealsounearthedinTongzhou,(picturedtop)smovetomakeBeijingthecapitaloftheYuanDynasty(1271-1368)alsogaveaboosttoTongzhousfortunes,especiallyaftertheconstructionoftheGrandCanal,whichlinksBeijingandHangzhou,capitalofZhejiangprovince."Thecityexpandedandthepopulationalsogrewrapidly,"saysGao.",whichwastransportedviathecanalfromsouthernChina."Accordingtohistoricalrecords,thchitemsasaQingDynasty(1644-1911)mapoftheGrandCanal,andotherculturalrelicslikedailyitems,potteryandconstructionmaterials.(PhotoprovidedtoChinaDaily)In1329,(acontainerthatcouldholdabout75kilograms),(1368-1644)andQing(1644-1911)ighriceatTongzhou,headofthemuseum,talksaboutaQingmapoftheGrandCanal,fromBeijingtoShandongprovince,fromthereignofYongzheng(1722-35).AccordingtoZheng,themapwastakentoJapanduringtheWarofResistanceAgainstJapaneseAggression(1931-45)butwasbroughtbacktoChinaaround2000."Youcanstillfindmanyfacilitiesthatexisttodayonthemap,"

  AgiantpandaenjoysicedfruitatChimelongSafariParkinGuangzhouCity,SouthChina’sGuangdongProvince,May28,,keepersintheparkstartedprovidingfrozenfoodtothepandas.(Photo:ChinaNewsService/ChenJimin)GiantpandasenjoyicedfruitatChimelongSafariParkinGuangzhouCity,SouthChina’sGuangdongProvince,May28,,keepersintheparkstartedprovidingfrozenfoodtothepandas.(Photo:ChinaNewsService/ChenJimin)AgiantpandaenjoysicedfruitatChimelongSafariParkinGuangzhouCity,SouthChina’sGuangdongProvince,May28,,keepersintheparkstartedprovidingfrozenfoodtothepandas.(Photo:ChinaNewsService/ChenJimin)AgiantpandaenjoysicedfruitatChimelongSafariParkinGuangzhouCity,SouthChina’sGuangdongProvince,May28,,keepersintheparkstartedprovidingfrozenfoodtothepandas.(Photo:ChinaNewsService/ChenJimin)AgiantpandaenjoysicedfruitatChimelongSafariParkinGuangzhouCity,SouthChina’sGuangdongProvince,May28,,keepersintheparkstartedprovidingfrozenfoodtothepandas.(Photo:ChinaNewsService/ChenJimin)Aviewofwatchtower-likeresidentialbuildingsinGonjoCounty,ChamdoPrefectureinSouthwestChina’’sSanyanarealiveinthebuildingsthatarethreetofivefloorshighandmadeofmudontheoutside,witheachstructurehometoatleasttwofamilies.(Photo:ChinaNewsService/JiXiang)Aviewofwatchtower-likeresidentialbuildingsinGonjoCounty,ChamdoPrefectureinSouthwestChina’’sSanyanarealiveinthebuildingsthatarethreetofivefloorshighandmadeofmudontheoutside,witheachstructurehometoatleasttwofamilies.(Photo:ChinaNewsService/JiXiang)Aviewofwatchtower-likeresidentialbuildingsinGonjoCounty,ChamdoPrefectureinSouthwestChina’’sSanyanarealiveinthebuildingsthatarethreetofivefloorshighandmadeofmudontheoutside,witheachstructurehometoatleasttwofamilies.(Photo:ChinaNewsService/JiXiang)Aviewofwatchtower-likeresidentialbuildingsinGonjoCounty,ChamdoPrefectureinSouthwestChina’’sSanyanarealiveinthebuildingsthatarethreetofivefloorshighandmadeofmudontheoutside,witheachstructurehometoatleasttwofamilies.(Photo:ChinaNewsService/JiXiang)Aviewofwatchtower-likeresidentialbuildingsinGonjoCounty,ChamdoPrefectureinSouthwestChina’’sSanyanarealiveinthebuildingsthatarethreetofivefloorshighandmadeofmudontheoutside,witheachstructurehometoatleasttwofamilies.(Photo:ChinaNewsService/JiXiang)Aviewofwatchtower-likeresidentialbuildingsinGonjoCounty,ChamdoPrefectureinSouthwestChina’’sSanyanarealiveinthebuildingsthatarethreetofivefloorshighandmadeofmudontheoutside,witheachstructurehometoatleasttwofamilies.(Photo:ChinaNewsService/JiXiang)Aviewofwatchtower-likeresidentialbuildingsinGonjoCounty,ChamdoPrefectureinSouthwestChina’’sSanyanarealiveinthebuildingsthatarethreetofivefloorshighandmadeofmudontheoutside,witheachstructurehometoatleasttwofamilies.(Photo:ChinaNewsService/JiXiang)Aviewofwatchtower-likeresidentialbuildingsinGonjoCounty,ChamdoPrefectureinSouthwestChina’’sSanyanarealiveinthebuildingsthatarethreetofivefloorshighandmadeofmudontheoutside,witheachstructurehometoatleasttwofamilies.(Photo:ChinaNewsService/JiXiang)Aviewofwatchtower-likeresidentialbuildingsinGonjoCounty,ChamdoPrefectureinSouthwestChina’’sSanyanarealiveinthebuildingsthatarethreetofivefloorshighandmadeofmudontheoutside,witheachstructurehometoatleasttwofamilies.(Photo:ChinaNewsService/JiXiang)Aviewofwatchtower-likeresidentialbuildingsinGonjoCounty,ChamdoPrefectureinSouthwestChina’’sSanyanarealiveinthebuildingsthatarethreetofivefloorshighandmadeofmudontheoutside,witheachstructurehometoatleasttwofamilies.(Photo:ChinaNewsService/JiXiang)

”AmericanschoolteacherJenAdamsBeasonpostedthecommentonFacebook,andrevealedthatfouroutof21ofherstudentssaidtheywishedmobilephoneshadneverbeeninvented.美国一位学校老师珍-亚当斯-比森把这段话上传到脸书上,说她的21名学生中有4名希望智能手机没有被发明出来。

  English-LanguageNewsWebEditorRequirements::Aminimumofabachelor’sdegreeatanaccreditedcollegeoruniversitywithamajorinjournalism,English,economics,internationalpolitics,,:Haveathoroughunderstandingandappreciationfortheroleofjournalismandaccurate,ftWord,AdobePhotoshop,Dreamweaver,:Previousjoborinternshipexperienceinan:Responsibleforconductingnewsinterviews,andcompiling,editingandrevisingnewsmanuscriptsfromothersourcesforwebsitenews,dupdates,andproducingspecialnewspackages,aswellasothe,:’sdegreeatanaccreditedcollegeoruniversitywithamajorinjournalism,English,economics,internationalpolitics,andaccurate,,:-Thejobisfull-time.-rewritingandcopy-editingstorieswrittenbystaffandfromothermediaresources;-writingoredittingheadlines,readingprovesandcontributingideasinstoryselectionandlayoutandsoon;-helpingproductionanddevelopmentofothereditorialmaterials,whichincludewritingstories,columns,reviewsandrecordings

  Ablue-throatedbee-eaterfliesatHoulouVillage,YangzhongTown,YouxiCounty,southeastChinasFujianProvince,May25,2018.(Xinhua/MeiYongcun)Blue-throatedbee-eatersperchonabranchatHoulouVillage,YangzhongTown,YouxiCounty,southeastChinasFujianProvince,May25,2018.(Xinhua/MeiYongcun)Blue-throatedbee-eatersperchonabranchinLuxiaTown,NanpingCity,southeastChinasFujianProvince,May25,2018.(Xinhua/MeiYongcun)Blue-throatedbee-eaterssportatHoulouVillage,YangzhongTown,YouxiCounty,southeastChinasFujianProvince,May28,2018.(Xinhua/MeiYongcun)Ablue-throatedbee-eaterfliesinLuxiaTown,NanpingCity,southeastChinasFujianProvince,May25,2018.(Xinhua/MeiYongcun)Ablue-throatedbee-eaterfliesatHoulouVillage,YangzhongTown,YouxiCounty,southeastChinasFujianProvince,May25,2018.(Xinhua/MeiYongcun)Blue-throatedbee-eatersperchonabranchinLuxiaTown,NanpingCity,southeastChinasFujianProvince,May25,2018.(Xinhua/MeiYongcun)Blue-throatedbee-eatersperchonabranchinLuxiaTown,NanpingCity,southeastChinasFujianProvince,May25,2018.(Xinhua/MeiYongcun)Ablue-throatedbee-eaterforagesatHoulouVillage,YangzhongTown,YouxiCounty,southeastChinasFujianProvince,May25,2018.(Xinhua/MeiYongcun),2017showstheinsideviewofLuzhnikiStadiumwhichwillhostthe2018WorldCupmatchesinMoscow,Russia.(Xinhua/WuZhuang),2017showstheoutsideviewofLuzhnikiStadiumwhichwillhostthe2018WorldCupmatchesinMoscow,Russia.(Xinhua/WuZhuang),2017showstheoutsideviewofLuzhnikiStadiumwhichwillhostthe2018WorldCupmatchesinMoscow,Russia.(Xinhua/WuZhuang),2017showstheoutsideviewofLuzhnikiStadiumwhichwillhostthe2018WorldCupmatchesinMoscow,Russia.(Xinhua/WuZhuang)

  Ablue-throatedbee-eaterfliesatHoulouVillage,YangzhongTown,YouxiCounty,southeastChinasFujianProvince,May25,2018.(Xinhua/MeiYongcun)Blue-throatedbee-eatersperchonabranchatHoulouVillage,YangzhongTown,YouxiCounty,southeastChinasFujianProvince,May25,2018.(Xinhua/MeiYongcun)Blue-throatedbee-eatersperchonabranchinLuxiaTown,NanpingCity,southeastChinasFujianProvince,May25,2018.(Xinhua/MeiYongcun)Blue-throatedbee-eaterssportatHoulouVillage,YangzhongTown,YouxiCounty,southeastChinasFujianProvince,May28,2018.(Xinhua/MeiYongcun)Ablue-throatedbee-eaterfliesinLuxiaTown,NanpingCity,southeastChinasFujianProvince,May25,2018.(Xinhua/MeiYongcun)Ablue-throatedbee-eaterfliesatHoulouVillage,YangzhongTown,YouxiCounty,southeastChinasFujianProvince,May25,2018.(Xinhua/MeiYongcun)Blue-throatedbee-eatersperchonabranchinLuxiaTown,NanpingCity,southeastChinasFujianProvince,May25,2018.(Xinhua/MeiYongcun)Blue-throatedbee-eatersperchonabranchinLuxiaTown,NanpingCity,southeastChinasFujianProvince,May25,2018.(Xinhua/MeiYongcun)Ablue-throatedbee-eaterforagesatHoulouVillage,YangzhongTown,YouxiCounty,southeastChinasFujianProvince,May25,2018.(Xinhua/MeiYongcun)

  Twojournalistslookatthescreenshowingthedamagedworldfamouspaintingofthe16thcenturyRussianTsar,titledIvantheTerribleandhisSonIvanonNovember16,1581.byIlyaRepinduringapressconferenceattheRussianStateTretyakovGalleryinMoscowonMay28,hebestknownworksof19thcenturypainterIlyaRepin,depictingIvantheTerriblekillinghisson,atagalleryinMoscow.(Photo/Agencies)RussianStateTretyakovGalleryofficialsattendapressconferenceafterIlyaRepinsworldfamouspaintingofthe16thcenturyRussianTsar,titledIvantheTerribleandhisSonIvanonNovember16,1581.wasdamagedinMoscowonMay28,2018.-RussianpoliceonSaturdaysaidtheyarrestedamanforvandalisingoneofthebestknownworksof19thcenturypainterIlyaRepin,depictingIvantheTerriblekillinghisson,atagalleryinMoscow.(Photo/Agencies)ARussianStateTretyakovGalleryemployeestandsneartheblankspacewhereIlyaRepinsworldfamouspaintingofthe16thcenturyRussianTsar,titledIvantheTerribleandhisSonIvanonNovember16,1581.wasexhibitedinMoscowonMay28,2018.-RussianpoliceonSaturdaysaidtheyarrestedamanforvandalisingoneofthebestknownworksof19thcenturypainterIlyaRepin,depictingIvantheTerriblekillinghisson,atagalleryinMoscow.(Photo/Agencies)AgiantpandaenjoysicedfruitatChimelongSafariParkinGuangzhouCity,SouthChina’sGuangdongProvince,May28,,keepersintheparkstartedprovidingfrozenfoodtothepandas.(Photo:ChinaNewsService/ChenJimin)GiantpandasenjoyicedfruitatChimelongSafariParkinGuangzhouCity,SouthChina’sGuangdongProvince,May28,,keepersintheparkstartedprovidingfrozenfoodtothepandas.(Photo:ChinaNewsService/ChenJimin)AgiantpandaenjoysicedfruitatChimelongSafariParkinGuangzhouCity,SouthChina’sGuangdongProvince,May28,,keepersintheparkstartedprovidingfrozenfoodtothepandas.(Photo:ChinaNewsService/ChenJimin)AgiantpandaenjoysicedfruitatChimelongSafariParkinGuangzhouCity,SouthChina’sGuangdongProvince,May28,,keepersintheparkstartedprovidingfrozenfoodtothepandas.(Photo:ChinaNewsService/ChenJimin)AgiantpandaenjoysicedfruitatChimelongSafariParkinGuangzhouCity,SouthChina’sGuangdongProvince,May28,,keepersintheparkstartedprovidingfrozenfoodtothepandas.(Photo:ChinaNewsService/ChenJimin)

  AdestroyedstructureisseenaslavafromtheKilaueavolcanopoursoutofafissureinLeilaniEstatesnearPahoa,Hawaii,,May26,2018.(Photo/Agencies)OfferingsareleftonafreshlavabedfromtheKilaueavolcano,intheLeilaniEstatesnearPahoa,Hawaii,,May26,2018.(Photo/Agencies)LavafromtheKilaueavolcanopoursoutofafissure,intheLeilaniEstatesnearPahoa,Hawaii,,May26,2018.(Photo/Agencies)OnlookersgatherinfrontofhardenedlavafromtheKilaueavolcano,intheLeilaniEstatesnearPahoa,Hawaii,,May26,2018.(Photo/Agencies)OnlookersgathertowatchaslavapoursoutofafissureintheLeilaniEstatesnearPahoa,Hawaii,,May26,2018.(Photo/Agencies)

  Asthenumberofsmartphoneusersexplodes,’,that’,up30%’sbusinessincubator,,,andhiscompanyisyettomakeaprofit."Inthepast,ifanewgamehasgoodquality,,’sharderforsmallcompanies."GaoChao,,gamecompaniesarelookingforestablishedpartners."Wehaveapositivecashflow,andwearethinkingabount."LiXin,CEOofHangzhouWooduanEntertainmentsaid.""FangMing,%ofstartupcompaniesareprofitable."Formanygamedevelopers,,buthowabouttomorrow"WeiWei,,itmaystillbetooearlytocallthewinners.

  人类跑步的步态有两步——腾空:双脚均离地;站立:至少一只脚着地。现在,这一现象也普遍存在于背井离乡、在大城市生活的单身青年之中。

  

  承接补水美白面膜代加工、化妆品oem代加工服务

 
责编:
民俗学家萧放:因势利导,让乡风文明重归“故土”
发表时间:2019-08-20   来源:光明日报

  【新春走基层】

  春节是中华民族最隆重、最盛大的传统节日,年俗承载着中华文化的血脉和精华。它的隆重与盛大既表现在丰富多样的具体节日民俗中,又表现在节日文化价值的核心内涵和社会功能上。以春节为代表的传统节日习俗与文化是观察乡村的重要窗口,也是建设乡风文明的重要抓手。春节有着怎样的文化基因和丰富内涵,怎样传承以春节为代表的传统节日文化,如何以年节习俗为抓手,移风易俗,让乡风文明重归“故土”?记者采访了北京师范大学中国社会管理研究院/社会学院人类学民俗学系主任、中国民俗学会副会长萧放。

  记者:春节是我国历史最悠久、影响最广泛、全民参与程度最高的传统佳节。春节习俗有哪些特点,在传统社会有何社会功能?

  萧放:传统春节是年度周期中关键的时间段落,是中国人特定的“时间通过仪礼”,辞旧与迎新是其习俗主题,形成了丰富多彩的春节习俗。从时间进程看,春节由忙年、团聚与贺岁迎春三大节俗环节构成。作为传统的民俗景观,忙年是指为过春节做物质、环境、社会、精神的准备阶段。俗话说,“过了腊八就是年”,但真正敲响年节锣鼓的是小年,此后,人们忙着清洁屋宇、结清账目、备办年货、馈赠辞年、祭祀祖先等,特别是年节食品的采买与加工,各地群众都忙着赶年集,购年货;家人团聚、共享年夜饭,围炉夜话、守岁迎年是年节的高潮;贺岁迎春是春节习俗的第三阶段,“一元复始,万象更新”,在冬去春来的时节,人们以春联、年画装饰门庭,迎神接福、相互拜贺,庆祝新春的到来。

  我们从春节习俗的构成元素看,可以清楚地明了春节作为民俗大节的社会文化功能。春节习俗按其性质可分为信仰、伦理、饮食、娱乐四大部分,人们在年度循环最关键的新旧交替时段,以信仰祭祀性习俗强化、更新人与自然、人与历史的精神联系,以伦理性习俗强化家庭邻里的社会联系,以饮食娱乐性习俗补益与调节身心。因此,春节习俗在传统社会的个体、家庭与社会生活中具有重要的周期性的物质满足、社会调控与精神调剂功能。

  记者:千百年来,以春节为代表的年节文化代代相传、接续不绝,同时又适应时代变化不断创新发展,今天我们的传统年节习俗有哪些新的变化?

  萧放:的确,春节习俗的基本框架与主要元素得到持续的传承,而传统节俗的社会功能与具体形态已经发生了较大变化,我们可以从物质、社会、精神三大层面来说明。

  从物质层面看,春节依旧是重大物质消费日,传统春节的食物、用品大多是自家备办,忙年之忙也主要在此。当代中国经济繁荣发展,过年的物质条件显著改善,无论城乡,年节食品、用品主要依赖年货市场,忙年变成忙着采买。并且年货采买方式更为灵活,品类更加多样。比如我们的年夜饭虽然仍保留全鱼、丸子与其他地方特色菜肴,但东西南北各地的新式菜肴成了年夜饭的主角,地方性的舌尖传统发生着变化。

  从社会层面看,春节在传统社会是家族内部伦理关系的集中呈现与强化的时段,现在春节的这一伦理功能依然传承,但经过近代百年来的社会变革,已经明显弱化。人们更强调春节期间社会关系的人际互动,比如压岁钱的范围已经超出家庭,家族内部拜年活动减少乃至停止,等等。

  从精神层面看,春节在传统社会是信仰祭祀的重要时间,它继承古代年终大祭,对神灵特别是祖先虔诚祭祀。现在春节的精神核心发生了重大变化,人们的节日信仰显著削弱,神灵祭祀活动在乡村明显减少,大型家族祭祀活动基本消失,对过去的年节行为语言禁忌也较少遵守,人们更看重春节的休闲与情感交流。春节的这些变化体现了当代中国年节文化既传承着古老的年俗文明,又有着适应时代环境的新变化。

  记者:春节期间,光明日报记者开展了新春走基层活动,报道了各地的新乡风、新民情,可以看出传统年俗等在今天的乡村文化中仍占有重要位置,您认为,我们应该如何复兴乡风文明,建设美丽乡村?

  萧放:中华五千年文明,植根于大地,植根于乡村,当代乡村是传统农业文明的重要保留地,也是优秀传统文化传承的重要根基。当然,我们也要看到在城市化进程中,村落空心化严重,乡村文明衰落,一些地方甚至出现乡村传统秩序崩塌、村落精神涣散、功利行为盛行的畸变。如何复兴乡风文明,重建美丽乡村是我们应该特别关注的社会问题。可喜的是,近年来,乡村文化建设得到高度重视,从光明日报等媒体的报道中,我们也看到很多乡村文明复兴的好做法、好经验。如何让乡风文明重归“故土”,归纳起来有如下方式与路径。

  首先,以村落集体性年节活动,重新聚合村民,复兴乡土村落公共参与意识。为了让乡风文明重回“故土”,村落日常生活特别是年节期间的集体参与活动应该充分重视,比如浙江、江西等地利用祠堂、礼堂等村落公共空间举行村落春晚,就是有益尝试。江西兴国永丰乡果溪村正月初三的春晚已经连办九届,成为融合传统民间艺术与当代主流价值观的有效载体;浙江一些祠堂改为文化礼堂,乡村文化生活重新活跃,人们的公共意识与村落公益性项目有了明显改善。

  其次,充分发挥新乡贤作用,重建乡村组织权威。乡风文明建设离不开关键性人物的组织与推动,新乡贤利用国家政策与民间文化资源,制定乡规民约,协调村落社会秩序,带领村民修复村落公共文化设施,组织村民集体性活动,让村民重新找到共同体的感觉。如浙江景宁畲族自治县梧桐乡高演村在新乡贤带领下出现重大变化,今年他们自编自导自演的乡村春晚重点引导乡风文明,引人瞩目。

  再次,倡导敬宗尊祖、敬老爱幼、守望相助的伦理精神。乡风文明建设最关键的是精神文明,乡村精神文明的核心是孝道和顺,家庭孝道、邻里和顺是乡风文明的基础。为此需要传承我们敬宗尊祖、敬老爱幼、守望相助伦理传统,只有家庭和睦、邻里和谐,相互支持依靠,乡村才有内聚力与生机。传承复兴乡村伦理精神,是复兴乡土文化,提升乡风文明的重要途径与关节点。

  让乡风文明重归“故土”,是中华文明护根固本的重要工作,同时也是建设美丽乡村的重要内容。自古以来,移风易俗就是社会治理的重要内容,但如何在尊重人们情感与延续文化肌理方面,充分考虑到风俗主体的村民感受与利益,需要依照风俗变化规律与趋势加以引导,切忌简单、机械与粗暴地强制改变。太史公早就说过移风易俗需要因势利导,立俗施事,切不可与民强争,否则就不能收到长期的治理效果。(记者 户华为)

责任编辑:王钰
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刘兆南 新马集镇 诚盛花园 黄柏镇 庞家堡村
乌石古 庄家场 二机厂 九安 绕二镇